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Hadrian’s internal data representation

PFA by itself does not define a data representation, only a type system (Avro’s type system). Hadrian, as a software library rather than an application, does not require data to be serialized in a particular format. Three input formats are defined so far (Avro, JSON, and CSV), but applications using the library are encouraged to use their own input formats: anything that is appropriate for the workflow that Hadrian is to be embedded in.

However, data has to be represented in some form for processing by PFA functions. This is the data format used internally by Hadrian.

Avro type Hadrian’s internal format
null null Java Object (AnyRef)
boolean java.lang.Boolean
int java.lang.Integer
long java.lang.Long
float java.lang.Float
double java.lang.Double
string Java String
bytes Java array of bytes
array com.opendatagroup.hadrian.data.PFAArray[T]
map com.opendatagroup.hadrian.data.PFAMap[T]
record subclass of com.opendatagroup.hadrian.data.PFARecord
fixed subclass of com.opendatagroup.hadrian.data.PFAFixed
enum subclass of com.opendatagroup.hadrian.data.PFAEnumSymbols
union Java Object (AnyRef)

Input to a scoring engine’s action method must be of this form, and output from that method will be of this form. This is not the format that the Avro library produces when you deserialize an Avro file (Hadrian uses a custom org.apache.avro.specific.SpecificData called com.opendatagroup.hadrian.data.PFASpecificData). However, it is a format that can be passed directly to the Avro library to serialize an Avro file.

Specialized subclasses

Three of the above, PFARecord, PFAFixed, and PFAEnumSymbols are compiled specifically for each PFA engine class. (If you run the fromJson method of com.opendatagroup.hadrian.jvmcompiler.PFAEngine with multiplicity > 1, all of the scoring engines returned share the same class; if you run it multiple times, the scoring engines belong to different classes.) You must use the right subclass. Since these subclasses are compiled at runtime, they must be accessed through a special java.lang.ClassLoader.

Here is an example of creating a PFARecord for a given engine (of class com.opendatagroup.hadrian.jvmcompiler.PFAEngine) and a recordType (of class com.opendatagroup.hadrian.datatype.AvroRecord). Assume that the fields of this record have already been converted into the appropriate types and are stored, in field order, in an array of Objects called fieldData.

val recordTypeName = recordType.fullName
val classLoader = engine.classLoader
val subclass = classLoader.loadClass(recordTypeName)
val constructor = subclass.getConstructor(classOf[Array[AnyRef]])

Only the last line needs to be executed at runtime; the rest can be saved from an initialization phase. In fact, calling constructor.setAccessible(true) can speed up constructor.newInstance(fieldData) by skipping access checks at runtime.

Here is an example of creating a PFAFixed from a given engine (of class PFAEngine) and a fixedType (of class com.opendatagroup.hadrian.datatype.AvroFixed). Assume that the data is stored as an array of byte primitives called bytesData.

val fixedTypeName = fixedType.fullName
val classLoader = engine.classLoader
val subclass = classLoader.loadClass(fixedTypeName)
val constructor = subclass.getConstructor(classOf[Array[Byte]])

Here is an example of creating a PFAEnumSymbol from a given engine (of class PFAEngine) and an enumType (of class com.opendatagroup.hadrian.datatype.AvroEnum). Assume that the data is given as a string called symbolName.

val enumTypeName = enumType.fullName
val classLoader = engine.classLoader
val subclass = classLoader.loadClass(enumTypeName)
val constructor = subclass.getConstructor(classOf[org.apache.avro.Schema],
constructor.newInstance(enumType.schema, symbolName)

Container types: array and map

PFAArray[T] and PFAMap[T] are templated classes that satisfy Java’s java.util.List[T] and java.util.Map[String, T] interfaces, though most methods raise UnsupportedOperationException. They are backed by Scala collections, Vector[T] and Map[String, T]. The normal way to create a PFAArray[T] or PFAMap[T] is with a given vector v or map m:


However, they can also be constructed using in-place operations using the Java interfaces (sizeHint is an integer hint for preallocation and arrayType, mapType are instances of com.opendatagroup.hadrian.datatype.AvroArray and com.opendatagroup.hadrian.datatype.AvroMap):

val array = PFAArray.empty(sizeHint, arrayType.schema)

val map = PFAMap.empty(sizeHint, mapType.schema)
map.put(key1, value1)
map.put(key2, value2)

To get a usable collection, call the array.toVector or map.toMap methods. In the building phase, PFAArray[T] and PFAMap[T] are backed by scala.collection.mutable.Builder[T, Vector[T]] and scala.collection.mutable.Builder[(String, T), Map[String, T]] for performance when progressively accumulating data. Once array.toVector or map.toMap has been called, they are backed by collections. The array.toVector and map.toMap operations should be considered rapid because they’re already lazy-cached.

Note that PFAArray[T] takes primitive types T for booleans (Boolean), integers (Int), longs (Long), floats (Float), and doubles (Double), but PFAMap[T] takes boxed primitive types T for booleans (java.lang.Boolean), integers (java.lang.Integer), longs (java.lang.Long), floats (java.lang.Float), and doubles (java.lang.Double). These quirks were forced by the way that the Avro library loads data.

Additionally, PFAArray[T] has a mutable metadata field (of type Map[String, Any]) for optimizations. Some data mining models run faster if their input data are organized differently from a flat list. For instance, model.neighbor.nearestK can be optimized by storing the training dataset as a KD-tree, rather than a list. With the lib.model.neighbor.nearestK.kdtree option set to true, Hadrian will build the KD-tree and attach it to the PFAArray[T] as metadata. On subsequent calls, model.neighbor.nearestK will search the tree, rather than the array, replacing an O(n) algorithm with an O(log(n)) one. This is safe from inconsistencies because arrays are immutable in PFA.

Example translators

Hadrian has a few built-in translator routines, which translate data from a form appropriate for one engine class to another engine class (com.opendatagroup.hadrian.data.PFADataTranslator), from data deserialized by the Avro library to data appropriate for an engine class (com.opendatagroup.hadrian.data.AvroDataTranslator), and to and from Scala code (com.opendatagroup.hadrian.data.ScalaDataTranslator). All three minimize the effort needed to translate at runtime by saving constructors and skipping unnecessary translations (for example, from java.lang.Integer to java.lang.Integer or arrays of these, etc.).

Antinous also has translator routines, which translate from PFA to Jython (com.opendatagroup.antinous.translate.PFAToJythonDataTranslator), the reverse (com.opendatagroup.antinous.translate.JythonToPFADataTranslator), and data deserialized by the Avro library to Jython (com.opendatagroup.antinous.translate.AvroToJythonDataTranslator). They follow the same pattern as Hadrian’s translators, but additionally have to deal with the problem of grafting the Avro type system onto Python’s built-in type system.

Built-in serialization methods

The Hadrian library provides a few data serialization/deserialization methods out-of-the-box. Some are specific to a given PFAEngine class, others are generic, deserializing data that could be translated with PFADataTranslator and then used as input to action or for serializing any data directly.

The specific methods are all member functions of the PFAEngine class. The results of each input method can be directly passed to PFAEngine.action and the output of PFAEngine.action (or emit) can be directly passed to each output method.

The following functions are generic, not associated with any PFA engine class. To use them for input, be sure to run the data through the specific PFA engine’s PFAEngine.fromPFAData first. Any can be used for output. They are all in the com.opendatagroup.hadrian.data package.